Sandstorm Blog

Fundraising for the Sandstorm Community

By Ian Denhardt - 17 Jun 2021

Hey Everyone!

Members of the Sandstorm community are doing some fundraising!


The organizers are familiar faces, but we aren’t and haven’t ever been formally affiliated with Sandstorm, Inc; we’re just long-time community members looking to chart a path for the Sandstorm project going forward. We all miss the days when there were several people working on Sandstorm full-time, and want to find ways to support continued development of new features and additional app packaging efforts.

If you want to help us out here’s how you can:

Updating Tiny Tiny RSS, Moving Sandstorm's Security Model Forward.

By Ian Denhardt - 08 Aug 2020

This past week I updated the Sandstorm package for Tiny Tiny RSS. In addition to updating to the latest upstream code, I’ve also made some improvements to the package’s integration with Sandstorm. In particular:

The latter of these is critical to enable Sandstorm’s goal of full network isolation for applications. It has always been the intent that apps running on a Sandstorm server should not be able to phone home or otherwise access the network without the user’s consent, but early on the team implemented some temporary hacks that apps could make use of until Sandstorm’s Powerbox API was actually available. Now it is, so it’s time to migrate existing code away from these legacy APIs. Once we’ve done that, we can remove the holes, and finally deliver on Sandstorm’s security promise of network isolation for server code.

In order to make this happen, I wrote a daemon that runs inside of the grain, intercepting HTTP traffic and making powerbox requests for access to the relevant hosts on-demand. The daemon is re-usable and could be used as a quick way to port other existing apps that have legitimate need to access a variety of different hosts at runtime, which are not known in advance.

Unfortunately, this transition does come with some growing pains, and there are a few things users should be aware of when upgrading.

First, since existing TTRSS grains will already have subscriptions to feeds that they haven’t requested access to, the first time you start the new version of TTRSS you’ll see a flood of requests for all of your existing feeds. This is annoying, but fortunately after this initial setup you’ll only need to grant access when adding new feeds.

Second, a more serious limitation of the current implementation is that it makes it impossible to add new feeds through mobile & desktop clients – at least without also having a browser window open somewhere. This is because, without the Sandstorm UI open, Sandstorm has no way of actually showing a user the powerbox dialog. We’d like to find ways to improve on this.

Finally, while the daemon is exciting for app packagers, in that it can make basic porting of apps not designed for Sandstorm much quicker, the integration is imperfect, resulting in a sub-par UX: as it stands, users will see an extra prompt (or two) when first subscribing to a feed.

Maintaining security while avoiding annoying extra prompts like this is one of the design goals of Sandstorm’s powerbox, but to fully take advantage of it will require more invasive changes to TTRSS; rather than prompting the user for a feed URL and then trying to fetch it (causing the daemon to request access), it should just ask Sandstorm for a feed directly. If you’re an enterprising PHP hacker and want to help make this happen, get in touch on the sandstorm-dev mailing list or the #sandstorm IRC channel on

Let's Encrypt support for Sandstorm and Sandcats

By Kenton Varda - 13 Jun 2020

Sandstorm now has built-in support for fetching certificates from Let’s Encrypt. This applies both to Sandcats and to custom domains.

Let’s Encrypt with Sandcats

Backstory is Sandstorm’s free dynamic DNS and TLS (aka SSL) certificate service. Since 2015, Sandcats has been making it easier to set up self-hosted Sandstorm servers, by letting anyone claim a subdomain of on which to host their server, automatically configuring DNS and HTTPS.

Sandstorm requires a wildcard host so that it can create sandboxes by assigning random hostnames. So, the certificates issued by have always been wildcard certs. Back in 2015, that was a challenge: at the time, Let’s Encrypt did not yet offer wildcard certs, so the only way to get one was to pay for it. Unfortunately, many CAs considered wildcards to be an “enterprise feature” and charged excessive amounts of money for them, often hundreds or even thousands of dollars.

So how were we able to offer wildcard certificates for free? Well, we negotiated a deal with GlobalSign. Recognizing that subdomains of were unlikely to be enterprise customers, and recognizing a growth opportunity if Sandstorm took off, GlobalSign offered us a deal that worked. Sandstorm was a funded startup at the time, and we were happy to pay a few bucks per certificate-year and call it “customer acquisition cost”. We paid for thousands of certificate-years upfront, anticipating growth.

But, the growth we hoped for didn’t happen, and we only ever had about 500 self-hosted servers using Sandcats. In 2017, Sandstorm failed as a startup and reverted to being just an open source project. Having never seen the growth we were hoping for, we hadn’t even come close to using up the first block of certificates we had paid for from GlobalSign. Since we had already paid, we left the system running, happily issuing certificates.

Fast forward to 2020. Finally, our contract is running out. In fact, it did run out, in early March – embarrassingly, I had miscounted how much time we had left. However, GlobalSign was nice enough to give us a small extension, giving us time to migrate our users without disruption. And it turns out that, these days, Let’s Encrypt supports wildcards. So, moving to them is the obvious choice.

What’s New

Starting a few days ago, all Sandstorm servers using are in the process of switching to Let’s Encrypt for future certificates. The process is designed to happen slowly so that we can address any problems that arise, but so far everything has been smooth. All servers should be transitioned by the end of the month.

If you’d like your server to start using Let’s Encrypt immediately, visit the TLS certificates admin page at /admin/certificates on your server, click the button to create an ACME account (you will be prompted to agree to Let’s Encrypt’s Terms of Service), and then click “Fetch Certificate Now”.

Note that at present, we have not yet updated the install flow, so newly-installed Sandstorm servers will still use a GlobalSign certificate initially and then will switch to Let’s Encrypt later. We’ll be updating the installer soon, and then we will decommission the GlobalSign flow.

Let’s Encrypt with non-Sandcats domains

To implement Let’s Encrypt support for, it made sense for your self-hosted Sandstorm server to directly talk to Let’s Encrypt via the ACME protocol. This differs from the old GlobalSign flow, in which Sandstorm would talk to a central server, which then talked to the GlobalSign API on your behalf. This was necessary for GlobalSign since Sandstorm the company was paying for the certificates, so our credentials were needed when talking to the API. But for Let’s Encrypt, the central server only needs to set some DNS records to pass an ACME DNS-01 challenge; everything else happens on your own server.

Given this implementation, it was straightforward to support domains other than I chose to use the ACME.js library to implement the ACME protocol, and it turns out this library already had a suite of plugins to support a variety of popular DNS providers. If your domain uses any of the DNS providers supported by ACME.js, then Sandstorm can now automatically obtain TLS certificates for your domain from Let’s Encrypt.

However, at present, initial setup is difficult, because of the chicken-and-egg problem: How do you access the admin UI to configure certificates, without a certificate? And than brings me to…

Help make it better!

Currently, there are two major problems with setting up Sandstorm TLS on your own domain:

  1. The UI is very bad. I am a terrible designer, and I didn’t have much time to work on it. Especially bad is the fact that to configure any DNS plugin, currently, you need to enter a JSON blob into a textarea, where the JSON blob’s format is different for every plugin and documented in their respective READMEs as a JavaScript method parameter (not even JSON)… Only experienced programmers could possibly understand what to do. We should make the UI better. See issue #3300.
  2. There is a chicken-and-egg problem at install time, as the current UI to configure TLS is accessed over HTTP – which implies that you already need a TLS certificate for it to be secure. We need a CLI configuration option as an alternative. See issue #3367.

If you’d like to help implement either of these, click on the issue links above and comment!

Announcing the release of vagrant-spk 1.0

By Jacob Weisz - 22 Feb 2020

Hello! I’m Jacob Weisz, a member of the Sandstorm community, a long-time contributor, and the new maintainer of the vagrant-spk tool. I’m thrilled to announce the 1.0 release of vagrant-spk.

What’s vagrant-spk?

vagrant-spk is the premier tool for packaging Sandstorm apps. Unlike the spk tool built into Sandstorm, vagrant-spk creates a virtual environment within which to build your app. This provides a reasonable measure of reproducibility and maintainability, along with default templates (or “stacks”) of common configurations apps likely need to run.

What’s new?

Why go to 1.0 now?

Historically, vagrant-spk was frequently released alongside Sandstorm releases and was regularly dependent on those Sandstorm releases for functionality. At the time, the convention was to release vagrant-spk with versioning complimentary to Sandstorm releases.

However, times have changed. vagrant-spk improvements are rarely strongly correlated with Sandstorm releases, and of course, both Sandstorm and vagrant-spk releases are less frequent in nature.

vagrant-spk is also now a mature tool, having been used to package a large portion of Sandstorm apps. The natural progression at this time is to move from 0.236 to 1.0. This release is fairly small because the priority for 1.0 is to deliver a polished, stable release that we can then iterate upon.

The future of vagrant-spk

We have a list of improvements and features we are beginning to think about for vagrant-spk’s future. As part of renewed community efforts to revive the Sandstorm project, we are planning a regular cadence of releases for vagrant-spk. We have already begun designating goals for vagrant-spk 1.1, which we’d like to deliver later this year.

Reviving Sandstorm

By Ian Denhardt - 03 Feb 2020

Hi! I’m Ian Denhardt, a long-time Sandstorm user and community member. I have some exciting news to share. Let’s start by talking about some recent history.

It’s no secret that development on Sandstorm has been pretty sparse since Sandstorm-the-business shut down in 2017. The tone of that announcement was optimistic; while Sandstorm had failed as a business, as an open source project it had attracted an vibrant community, and there was hope that the project could continue to be successful outside of a for-profit setting.

Things didn’t go as smoothly as we’d hoped, however. While Sandstorm had had a healthy community of folks using it and building apps, there had been fewer contributions to Sandstorm itself from outside the company, and no one but Sandstorm employees had been doing major core development on a regular basis. Additionally, Kenton has had less time than he’d hoped to work on Sandstorm.

The project never quite died. It has continued to receive security and maintenance updates. Internationalization support was added, and several folks have stepped up to translate the UI into other languages. A few other features landed, and a few apps continued to see updates as well. But it would be more than fair to say that the project had stagnated, and while I and many others were still using it, it was clear that development wasn’t going anywhere fast.

That looks to be changing.

About two months ago, Lyre Calliope sent an email to the sandstorm-dev mailing list, starting a discussion on how to get the project moving again. Since then, I and others have been contributing code and documentation, and have had weekly “office hours” meetings. In spite of a full time job, moving across the country, and a new baby to take care of, Kenton has still managed find a bit of time to review and merge pull requests, and help plan. Here are some highlights of what’s been happening in terms of development:

As a community we’re once again very hopeful, and I personally am committed to spending what time I can making Sandstorm’s vision a reality. If you want to help, join us in the #sandstorm IRC channel on, and sign up for the sandstorm-dev mailing list.